Written by Sam Golob, leader and manager of CBT Tape
Throughout this article, I am trying to “Keep it Simple”.
I am assuming a general knowledge of computing concepts, and I trust that you’ll all be able to follow this narrative easily. You should know what a “file” is (a collection of data in one place, with a “filename” attached to the data). And you should know what computer programs are, and that they manipulate data. Easy.
IBM has a tendency to call a “file” by the term of “dataset.”
This article is an introduction to the concepts of the IBM mainframe, as it has been implemented in the IBM z/OS Operating System. This article is intended for people who “know computing” in some way, but they are not familiar with z/OS. We will try (in a short space) to get people familiar with z/OS.
Think of z/OS in the way you think of operating systems that you are already familiar with such as Windows, Linux, or MacOS. An operating system is a software program that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs to run.
We have to start with a statement: The IBM z/OS operating system is the latest in a series of names, for the “IBM MVS Operating System”. “MVS” stands for “Multiple Virtual Storage”. This (roughly) means that the system can do many “jobs” at one time, and each one of them appears to execute inside its own “personal” region of computer storage.
IBM has called the MVS operating system by different names, to show differences in “MVS development stages”. For instance, the name z/OS connotes “64-bit operating system”. Its previous name, OS/390, was “a new way of bundling components together without charging separately for them”. The next-previous name (MVS/ESA) was a 31-bit operating system with some supercharging. The previous name to that, MVS/XA, (MVS Extended Architecture) was the first 31-bit operating system for MVS. And previously, “MVS”, or “MVS/SP”, was a 24-bit operating system.
That’s as far back as we need to go, for now.
But they all mean essentially the same operating system, with the same general structure, only with some enhancements.
The general idea of “understanding MVS” is to know about its components, and how they hang together. But more simply, it’s more important to know something about how work goes into the system, and how the results of the work come out of the system.
Now to get to the nitty-gritty of what “MVS” is all about.
GETTING THE TASKS IN AND OUT – THE COMPONENT THAT DOES IT
z/OS is the operating system for the IBM z Series computers. These machines, with huge computing power, are used to run large businesses. They do so, by holding all the data that is needed by the business, and manipulating it so that all the transactions of a huge corporation or government entity are carried out and managed (hopefully) perfectly. This requires much design.
But on an elementary level, what are the components needed here?
First there is data. Data is kept in “files” or “databases”. IBM calls “files” by the term of “datasets”, so you have to get used to that term. Say “datasets” instead of saying “files”.
Then there are the PROGRAMS run by the computer, to manipulate the data, so that the business personnel are informed of what they need, and the managers get the information they need to manage and run the business. When customers do business with the corporation, their orders and transaction requests must be entered properly and recorded in the data. When items are delivered, the data must accurately reflect exactly what happened.
We will talk about how the data is entered into the computer, and which people run the programs to manipulate the data and execute the “business processes”. These people can be (roughly) called “the Applications People” and the “Applications Programmers”. The Applications People deal with the data, and the Applications Programmers deal with designing, writing and maintaining the computer programs that manipulate the data.
Then there is also a different category of people who deal with the computer. These are the people who “set up and run the operating system itself”. These are called “the Systems People” and the “Systems Programmers”. The Systems People operate the system, and the Systems Programmers maintain and install the programs which run the operating system itself. You may be familiar with the term Systems Administrator that is used for distributed computers – that is what a Systems Programmer is.
THE JOB ENTRY SUBSYSTEM
For our discussion, the Job Entry Subsystem is the most essential starting point for gaining an eventual understanding of MVS. The Job Entry Subsystem controls what goes into the computer, and what comes out.
Both the Applications People and the Systems People have to introduce work into the computer (the operating system) and get the results out. The component of “MVS” or “z/OS” which does this, is called the “Job Entry Subsystem”. The Job Entry Subsystem puts work into the computer, and prints the significant parts of the results, out.
Historically, when the Job Entry Subsystem for MVS needed to be invented, two different groups did the job. And they did the job in two entirely different ways. (Sorry folks!) This resulted in two completely different “Job Entry Subsystems”, that are known today as: “JES2” and “JES3”. JES2 is the more popular of the two. (But don’t tell that to the “JES3 fans”.) Nevertheless, nowadays, JES2 is supplanting JES3, so we’ll talk mainly about JES2 when we refer to Job Entry Subsystems.
GETTING THE WORK IN AND OUT – BASICS
There are several ways of getting work into the MVS Operating System. We will mainly discuss the first two. These are called:
A: “Submitting Batch Jobs” – or writing orders using a special language called “Job Control Language”, (abbreviated “JCL”) that tells the machine what you want it to do.
B: Bringing the work in through “TSO” or “Time Sharing Option” which is an interactive system that is operated from a computer terminal, or a computer screen.
C: “Remote Job Entry”. This consists of introducing work to the Job Entry Subsystem from a remote location, not directly submitting it into the machine (locally).
D: There are also the processes of entering TRANSACTIONS into the system. These are done mostly through other terminal interfaces that are not TSO, such as the CICS (Customer Information Control System), or DB2 (Database 2) terminal interfaces. These interfaces enter business data directly into files or databases, which will get manipulated later, to carry out the business tasks, by programs. These are the interfaces which are accessed through smartphones and corporate websites, as well. (But the “back-end” of the web interface is often connected to CICS or DB2.)
We will now get back to a programmer’s job of “how to get work into the system.” In this article, we won’t talk about the customers and their data entry, any more. We will try to make this process as easy as possible, to understand, from the programmer’s point of view.
To do so, in my opinion, it is clearer to first explain the process of Submitting Batch Jobs, because once you understand that, then you can understand the other method, or “what you can do from the computer terminal using TSO”, better.
One usually submits Batch Jobs to the Operating System using JCL, or “Job Control Language”.
WHAT IS JCL? (JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE)
In concept, JCL is very simple. The way people teach it, makes it seem very complicated. But it is really very simple. You’ll soon see. We just have to “explain it right”, and you’ll get the idea about what’s really behind it, especially if you think of it as a structured scripting language.
The concepts behind JCL are actually very easy to understand.
Physically, JCL is a bunch of “card images”. This data used to be written on the old “IBM punch cards.” Punch cards can contain exactly 80 bytes (or characters) of data apiece. A piece of JCL is really, in concept (it used to be “in reality”) an ordered stack of 80-byte punch cards, stacked one on top of the other. That’s where the data for JCL is, and its format will always look like one 80-byte line stacked on top of more 80-byte lines. (Only the first 72 columns of the 80, are used with sequence numbers in columns 73-80.)
Now, what does this stack of cards DO, when it is fed into the machine?
In short, this is what JCL does. It NAMES the job. Then it tells the system what PROGRAM to run. Finally it tells the program where to obtain the RESOURCES it will need (namely the FILES (DATASETS) it will need). In other words, the JCL: NAMES the job, GETS the resources for the program, INVOKES the program. Now, we’ll spell out the process of submitting work to the system.
First, understand that a piece of JCL, DEFINES A CHUNK OF WORK for the machine to do. This chunk of work has to have a NAME, which identifies it, so that the machine can distinguish between THIS chunk of work, and all the other pieces of work that the machine must handle. This name has a maximum of eight (8) characters. An example name might be MYJOB001. This name is called the “job name” of the piece of work.
The system can only handle one “job” named “MYJOB001” at one time. If two such jobs are submitted, the system will only process the first one, and the second one will have to wait until the first one is done. If two jobs have different job names, then the system can process both of them at the same time, provided that they don’t both need the same resources, so they don’t interfere with each other.
Just to be complete, I must explain that there are other “chunks of work” called “Started Tasks”, which are also (usually) defined by JCL, and two Started Tasks might have duplicate names under certain circumstances, but we are keeping it simple here. “The system will process only one job name at a time.”
THE FOUR KINDS OF JCL CARDS: JOB, EXEC, DD, and JECL
- The JOB card gives the job its NAME.
- The EXEC card tells the job what program to run.
- The DD card(s) define all the resources that the program will need.
- The JECL, or Job Entry Control Language is used to control how the JES (JES2 or JES3) processes the job. We will not be discussing these.
How does a “stack of JCL cards” define a job, with a “jobname”?
The first JCL card, which is called the “JOB card”, performs this function.
This first card has to have the “job name” written first, in column 3 (of the 80 columns) with a space after it, and the word “JOB” is written afterward. Then there can be more stuff on the JOB card, such as “accounting information” to tell the computer “who submitted the job”, but that is not so important for us now. What’s significant is that the “job name” on the JOB card defines the NAME of the piece of work.
All JCL statements have to begin with the characters “//” in columns 1 and 2. So a sample actual JOB card might look like this:
//SBGOLOBA JOB (ACCT#),S-GOLOB,CLASS=B,MSGCLASS=X,NOTIFY=&SYSUID
This defines to the computer, that the job name is “SBGOLOBA”, and it was submitted by “S-GOLOB”, with a few extra pieces of information added, such as an “account number”, which we don’t have to worry about now.
This is really enough about JOB cards for now. They define the NAME that this “chunk of work” has. The machine will henceforth know this “chunk of work” by the name of SBGOLOBA.
Now we need to tell the machine what kind of work it will have to do. This is done by another kind of card, called the EXEC card.
THE EXEC CARD
An EXEC card tells the machine what program to execute.
A stack of JCL cards can have more than one EXEC card, if more than one program is to be executed. But two programs can’t be executed at one time. You first execute one, and then (if there is more than one program to be executed), you execute the next one later.
Each time you execute a program (using a separate EXEC card to tell the machine which program it is), we say that we are executing a “Job Step”. So every EXEC card defines a JOB STEP.
Many programs are built so that they can execute in several different ways. In order to tell the program which way it should execute, we feed it information, in the form of PARAMETERS. We usually tell the program about which parameters it should use, using the PARM field of the EXEC card in the JCL. A simple example of using a PARM in an EXEC card might look like the following. Remember that all JCL cards must start with a slash-slash (//) in columns 1 and 2.
//ASMH EXEC PGM=ASMA90,PARM=’OBJECT,NODECK,NOESD,NORLD,FLAG(5)’
This is a real-life example. The program ASMA90 is “the Assembler” which is used to compile programs written in IBM Assembly Language. And the PARM in the EXEC card tells the program called ASMA90, that it should execute with parameters of “OBJECT, NODECK, NOESD, NORLD, and FLAG(5)”.
DEFINING WHICH DATA FILES THE PROGRAM WILL USE
Most programs read files. IBM has a habit of calling files by the term of “datasets”, so from now on, we may refer to files by the term “datasets”.
In a JCL “jobstream” (a stack of JCL used to run a complete chunk of work), the data files, or “datasets” that a program needs, are listed (each one separately) by “Data Definition cards” or DD cards. Each file needed by a program needs one DD card. All the DD cards having to do with one program must directly follow the EXEC card that executes that program in that “job step”.
For example, if a program needs an input file called INPUT, and it produces an output file called OUTPUT, then the DD cards describing these files to the program would look something like:
//INPUT DD DSN=MY.INPUT.FILE,DISP=(OLD,KEEP),.., more parameters
//OUTPUT DD DSN=MY.OUTPUT.FILE,DISP=(NEW,CATLG,DELETE), … more etc.
where the names “MY.INPUT.FILE” or “MY.OUTPUT.FILE” would be the names of these two files on the hard drive.
In other words, a JCL stack, defining a “chunk of work” or a “JOB” to the machine, must start with a JOB card (telling the machine the name of the job) followed by EXEC cards (each telling the job what PROGRAM to run), and each EXEC card has to be followed by a bunch of DD cards, each DD card telling the machine to supply a file that the program needs in order to run.
A “comment card” in a JCL stream (JES2 only) consists of “//*” in the first 3 columns. Everything after a comment card is disregarded. Comment cards are often inserted in JCL streams to increase readability.
All instructions in JCL have to be in UPPER CASE characters, with comments allowed to be mixed case..
A typical “jobstream”, or “chunk of work”, that you might submit to a machine to carry out, would be structured like this:
//JOBNAME JOB (who you are)
//* comment card – used to say what the job does,
//* or acts as a separator.
//* lowercase doesn’t matter in a comment card.
//STEPNAM1 EXEC PGM=PROGRAM1
//FILE1 DD (defines first file)
//FILE2 DD (defines second file)
//FILE3 DD (defines third file)
//STEPNAM2 EXEC PGM=PROGRAM2
//INFILE DD etc
and so forth.
Each specific program that is run, if it needs files to work on, specifies definite DD names that it needs. For instance, one program might need file DD names of INPUT and OUTPUT. Whereas another program might need file DD names of SYSUT1 and SYSUT2, for example. If a program needs files, it has to specify (internally) what “DD file names” it needs, on its DD cards. And when you run the program, you have to know exactly which DD names that the program needs, in its JCL. The names are arbitrary (up to 8 characters) and they depend on how the programmer wrote the program. Every different program needs its own internally defined DD names when you execute it. If you run a program, YOU HAVE TO KNOW THE EXACT DD NAMES that it requires. Otherwise, you can’t run it.
So far, so good. But we need to say a bit more about DD cards, because that’s where the details are (mostly), and the DD cards are the hardest ones to learn about. But we ain’t gonna make it that way. We’ll still try to keep it simple.
It’s not hopeless. You can still picture DD cards quite simply, and with the proper picture, you can pretty easily get the idea why they are the way they are.
UNDERSTANDING DD CARDS MEANS UNDERSTANDING THE FORMAT OF FILES IN MVS
We are now going to talk about MVS (z/OS) files which reside on disk. Files which reside on disk are often referred to as DASD files. DASD stands for “Direct Access Storage Device”, as opposed to Tape, which is only accessed sequentially (end to end).
To people who are used to UNIX files, or MS/DOS disk files, or Windows files, the concept of FILE FORMAT (or the physical format of the file) is different from that in MVS (z/OS). In Windows, for example, the format of a file is indicated by the suffix on its name. For example, if a file is called myfile.pdf, this would indicate that the file is in PDF format, and that it should be read by the Adobe reader application, or an equivalent PDF file reader (like Foxit, for example). If the suffix is .docx then the file is in Microsoft Word format. And so forth……
Not so in MVS (z/OS). MVS has several logical “file types” which are pre-defined, and you have to know what they are, in order to allow programs to deal with them. These types are general enough to cover a very wide variety of cases, but you have to tell an MVS (or z/OS) program a specific logical file type that it knows about, before you can get any action on it. And this information about the file, is either stored in a CATALOG on the system, or it is stored on the Volume Table of Contents (VTOC) of the disk drive that the file is on. Or else all the specifics must be physically spelled out completely, in the JCL that is being used to access that file.
This article is not a JCL class. It is an overview of what JCL is about, and what the rest of the system is about. So suffice it to say that we will just summarize, in general, the most common file formats that we encounter in normal common work. They are:
Fixed Blocked Files (FB). Expressed as RECFM=FB in JCL.
These files have records ALL OF THE SAME SIZE. For example, the “card image” files that we mentioned earlier, all have records that are 80 bytes long. However, these records may be bundled (or stacked, or combined) into BLOCKS, to save disk space. Blocks of data with bigger size (generally) take up less space on disk, then “unblocked” single records.
For example, consider a file with 2000 80-byte records, if its “block size” is 8000, this means that 100 of the records are written out to disk together, in a “block” of 8000 bytes in size, and the next group of 100 more records, totalling another 8000 bytes of data, are written out to disk in the next block. And so forth, until the file data is exhausted. So our file of 2000 80-byte records would occupy 20 data blocks. These 20 data blocks take up MUCH LESS ROOM on disk, then do 2000 single and separate 80-byte records.
If you specify RECFM=FB in the JCL which describes this type of file, then the system will know how to deal with the file. Of course, the last block might only be partially filled, or a “short block”. But the system knows how to deal with that. Block size in JCL is expressed as the parameter BLKSIZE=nnnn, where nnnn is a number which is the block size.
Record Lengths of Fixed Record files are expressed in JCL by the parameter: LRECL=nnn (LRECL stands for Logical Record Length).For example, all “card image” files have LRECL=80. (Block Size for Fixed Blocked files has to be a multiple of the record size. Think about it. This makes sense. We only combine COMPLETE records into a block, not partial records.
Variable Blocked Files (VB). Expressed as RECFM=VB in JCL.
These are files whose individual records can have variable length. I’m not going to go deeply into how this is kept track of, but the system appends two-byte prefixes to each record of data, saying how long that record is. And if the records are “blocked” (but they are variable in length) then the system appends an ADDITIONAL two-byte prefix to the block data (at the beginning of the block) to tell you how long the block is. And then the system writes these entire blocks to disk. You access variable blocked data in JCL by coding RECFM=VB in the DD card.
Record length in JCL for Variable Length records is the maximum length of a single record. For example if LRECL ( record length) for a Variable Length file is 255, then the individual records CAN’T BE LONGER than 255 bytes. But they may be shorter. So for RECFM=V (unblocked) or RECFM=VB (blocked) variable length records, the record length coded in the JCL is the MAXIMUM length of any particular record.
Undefined Record Format (U). Expressed as RECFM=U in JCL.
To cover the cases where you don’t know how long a record in a file is going to be, IBM has defined a catch-all type of record called Undefined Record Format. For example, an executable program is almost always in Undefined Format. You specify Undefined Format in JCL by coding RECFM=U in the DD card. You must limit the length of the undefined records, by coding a BLKSIZE=nnnnn parameter when describing this type of file, if it isn’t already cataloged, or it hasn’t yet been created.
OTHER TYPES OF FILES IN MVS (or z/OS) – VSAM and ZFS FILES FOR EXAMPLE
To keep things simple, I’ll mention another common type of file that is used in MVS and z/OS systems. This type of file is called a VSAM file. VSAM files have a complicated structure, but the point is, to allow you to insert or retrieve records in the middle of the file, without disturbing the overall structure of the file, and without having to read the other records. IBM has created a program to deal with VSAM files, and that program is called IDCAMS.
We will not talk about how to use the IDCAMS program here. This article is an overview only.
VSAM files are used largely to process transactions, and point-of-sale type things, because using VSAM files, you can insert new records in the middle of the file, or delete and modify existing records in the middle of the file, without disturbing the rest of the file.
z/OS also supports a ZFS file. This is actually a file system used by the z/OS Unix System Services (USS) environment that allows z/OS to support Unix ported tools. That is a topic for another article.
WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED SO FAR?
We have learned how work (a JOB) is introduced into an MVS system, using a JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE (JCL) stream of 80-byte “card images”, but we have not yet learned how to view the printed OUTPUT of these jobs, if we don’t have a printer to use.
But the picture isn’t complete yet. We haven’t even mentioned HOW these JCL job streams are SUBMITTED to the system. I’ll talk about that now.
Let’s begin by saying that in former times, when this operating system was new, jobs were submitted to the system using a “card reader” device, which read the stack of punched JCL cards into the system. The cards were created on a “card punch”, which was like a typewriter, but it produced a punched card of 80 characters, instead of letters on a piece of paper. You would punch the JCL cards on the card punch, and then you would submit the stack of cards (the jobstream) into a card reader (often in the same device) which would introduce the work into the system, so it could be processed.
But nowadays, all of that stuff, the card images of the job streams, and also the printed output, is stored on disk. How can we access that disk stuff directly, and edit and submit the jobs from disk? This is the piece of the picture that we are still missing.
Remember that the Job Entry Subsystem (JES2 or JES3) keeps track of most of the incoming and outgoing work in the system. And it keeps all records of this work on a special disk file, called the SPOOL file.
The Job Entry Subsystem also keeps track of all the incoming jobs using the SPOOL, and feeds them into the Operating System one job at a time, in order for the system to work on them. Then, the output information about the job, and any printed output, is written to the SPOOL as well. So now the question is: Can we look at the incoming jobs and the outgoing print, while it is still on the SPOOL disk file? Or do we have to wait until it is printed out on paper on a printer?
The answer is that IBM, and other z/OS software vendors, has created a means to view all of the information on the SPOOL using a program called SDSF (System Display and Search Facility), which runs on an Interactive Terminal Session. But I haven’t even mentioned what an Interactive Terminal Session is yet. We’ll do this now.
Some readers might think that I’m approaching the subject “assbackwards”, by mentioning Batch Jobs first, and Terminal Access later. But conceptually, you really can’t grasp the reason for Terminal Access to the system, before you understand how the system basically handles work. Only THEN, can you understand why TSO (the Terminal Access system) makes the whole process of submitting work to the system easier.
TIME SHARING OPTION, OR TSO
The Time Sharing Option of the MVS Operating System, allows us to manage the programming process, and to maintain the system, through being able to handle disk files directly, using SCREEN VIEWING of the disk files, and DIRECT SCREEN ACCESS to the disk files.
It wasn’t always this easy to use TSO, but IBM created, over time, tools to use under TSO, using the terminal, to make our lives very much easier. Two main tools were invented, to be used under TSO. They are called: ISPF (Interactive System Programming Facility) and SDSF (System Display and Search Facility). ISPF is a general multi-utility that allows you to edit and create files, copy files, write programs, compile them, and submit jobs. While SDSF gives you almost complete monitoring ability, in overseeing the life of your jobs. Using SDSF, you don’t have to wait for your jobs to print out. You can look at them and manipulate them while they are still sitting on the SPOOL file.
You get on to TSO by being assigned a USERID, which is created for you by the Systems Programmer. Once the user id is created, you LOGON to the userid, using your screen, and enter a password. This gets you (usually) directly into the ISPF facility, which allows you to access files on disk, edit and submit jobs, write programs, manage your own files, run SDSF to look at the SPOOL, and do a multitude of other things. You’re off to the races…..
I trust this article has given you a good start, in getting an idea what MVS is all about. Thanks for listening so far. There is quite a bit more to learn.